Journal Article

Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters with Out-of-Sequence Measurement Processing

Karl Berntorp, Anders Robertsson, Karl-Erik Årzén


This paper addresses the out-of-sequence measurement (OOSM) problem for mixed linear/nonlinear state-space models, which is a class of nonlinear models with a tractable, conditionally linear substructure. We develop two novel algorithms that utilize the linear substructure. The first algorithm effectively employs the Rao-Blackwellized particle filtering framework for updating with the OOSMs, and is based on storing only a subset of the particles and their weights over an arbitrary, predefined interval. The second algorithm adapts a backward simulation approach to update with the delayed (out-of-sequence) measurements, resulting in superior tracking performance. Extensive simulation studies show the efficacy of our approaches in terms of computation time and tracking performance. Both algorithms yield estimation improvements when compared with recent particle filter algorithms for OOSM processing; in the considered examples they achieve up to 10% enhancements in estimation accuracy. In some cases the proposed algorithms even deliver accuracy that is similar to the lower performance bounds. Because the considered setup is common in various estimation scenarios, the developed algorithms enable improvements in different types of filtering applications.


Tracking, particle filtering, out-of-sequence measurement (OOSM), Rao-Blackwellization


IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 62:24, pp. 6454–6467,2014.

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