Journal Article

Modeling and Optimization with Optimica and—Languages and Tools for Solving Large-Scale Dynamic Optimization Problems

Johan Åkesson, Karl-Erik Årzén, Magnus Gäfvert, Tove Bergdahl, Hubertus Tummescheit


The Modelica language, targeted at modeling of complex physical systems, has gained increased attention during the last decade. Modelica is about to establish itself as a de facto standard in the modeling community with strong support both within academia and industry. While there are several tools, both commercial and free, supporting simulation of Modelica models few efforts have been made in the area of dynamic optimization of Modelica models. In this paper, an extension to the Modelica language, entitled Optimica, is reported. Optimica enables compact and intuitive formulations of optimization problems, static and dynamic, based on Modelica models. The paper also reports a novel Modelica-based open source project,, specifically targeted at dynamic optimization. supports the Optimica extension and offers an open platform based on established technologies, including Python, C, Java and XML. Examples are provided to demonstrate the capabilities of Optimica and


Computers and Chemical Engineering, 34:11, pp. 1737–1749, November 2010.

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